A series of molecular signals that proceeds with an activated receptor promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha-subunit of an associated heterotrimeric G-protein complex. The GTP-bound activated alpha-G-protein then dissociates from the beta- and gamma-subunits to further transmit the signal within the cell. The pathway begins with receptor-ligand interaction, or for basal GPCR signaling the pathway begins with the receptor activating its G protein in the absence of an agonist, and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
The component of a membrane consisting of gene products and protein complexes that have some part that penetrates at least one leaflet of the membrane bilayer. This component includes gene products that are buried in the bilayer with no exposure outside the bilayer.