The irregular network of unit membranes, visible only by electron microscopy, that occurs in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotic cells. The membranes form a complex meshwork of tubular channels, which are often expanded into slitlike cavities called cisternae. The ER takes two forms, rough (or granular), with ribosomes adhering to the outer surface, and smooth (with no ribosomes attached).
The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a fatty acid, any of the aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that can be liberated by hydrolysis from naturally occurring fats and oils. Fatty acids are predominantly straight-chain acids of 4 to 24 carbon atoms, which may be saturated or unsaturated; branched fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids also occur, and very long chain acids of over 30 carbons are found in waxes.
Catalysis of an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction, a reversible chemical reaction in which the oxidation state of an atom or atoms within a molecule is altered. One substrate acts as a hydrogen or electron donor and becomes oxidized, while the other acts as hydrogen or electron acceptor and becomes reduced.